Types of Psychologists -

In other words, instead of spending their day screening patients and checking vitals, they are establishing work schedules, coordinating meetings and making personnel decisions.

Obstetrics OB nurses care for female patients before, during, and after pregnancy and childbirth. In addition to this, they also assist with other women's health issues such as birth control information, cancer screenings, and infertility. Occupational health nurses help prevent and investigate workplace ailments and injuries. They promote safe and healthy workplaces, and look into instances of on-the-job injuries or unsafe procedures to protect a company and ensure worker health.

These nurses specialize in caring for individuals who have been diagnosed with a bloodborne cancer like leukemia or a solid cancer like a tumor. Oncology nurses are the first line of communication, care and education that patients learn to lean on as they undergo a scary and often challenging path to remission.

Working with both adult and pediatric populations, the Oncology nurse helps patients and families track results and studies, inform about next steps, and manage symptoms throughout treatment. In every aspect of pre-surgery, intra-surgery and post-surgery, there's an OR nurse to help navigate the process; assisting the surgical team, providing care for the patient, and educating the patient's family.

The OR nurse promotes solution for maths health and welfare of the patient under a variety of conditions.

With the promotion of a supportive, care-focused and positive environment, the OR nurse is a valuable addition to many hospitals, doctor's offices and clinics. Ophthalmic nurses specialize in treating patients with various eye diseases and injuries. Working directly with ophthalmologists, ophthalmic nurses assist with eye exams, perform vision tests and administer medications, as well as educate patients on how to care for their eye disease or injury at home. They may also assist with various surgical procedures and care for patients prior to and following surgery.

Organ procurement coordinators are registered nurses who oversee and assist in the process of organ transplant surgeries. They help prepare the deceased body for transplant, help to match a donor to a recipient, and coordinate with doctors and surgeons regarding transportation of the organ. Most coordinators are RNs who have a surgical background and complete the Certified Procurement Transplant Coordinator examination.

Orthopaedic nurses deal with musculoskeletal issues including broken or fractured bones, arthritis, joint replacements, and more. They monitor patients before, during, and after orthopaedic surgeries and assist in casting and wound dressing.

Orthopaedic nurses also help patients get on a pain management schedule and help administer pain medications. Otorhinolaryngology nurses specialize in treating patients with various diseases and injuries of the ear, nose, throat, head and neck. Also known as ENT nurses, otorhinolaryngology nurses assist with patient exams, collect samples, administer medications and record symptoms and medical histories.

Pain management nurses are RNs who help to provide pain relief to patients experiencing chronic pain due to illness or injury.

They must constantly assess and reassess patients to make sure they are comfortable and cared for without doing harm to them by over-medicating, etc. Pain management nurses may work in hospitals, clinics, rehabilitation facilities, sports medicine centers, and other places where patients may be seeking pain relief. Palliative care nurses provide compassionate nursing care to patients with chronic or terminal illnesses.

They help patients with pain and symptom essay newspaper in education to ensure that they carry out their final days in comfort. These nurses work in hospitals, nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and private homes, or wherever a patient requires this type of care.

Parish nurses, also known as faith community nurses, are RNs who serve a parish kinds of sociology other faith community, integrating faith and healing to promote health and wellness. Aside from the kinds of thesis medical training, parish nurses must also have a strong foundation in and knowledge of their particular faith.

Parish nurses may be responsible for tasks such as providing spiritual support to patients, mentoring volunteers or other members of their parish, educating patients on the importance of faith in relation to health and wellness, and starting up support groups. They can work in churches, hospitals, social services agencies, and more.

Pediatric endocrinology nurses treat children with endocrine disorders, such as juvenile diabetes, pituitary problems, and adrenal diseases. They work alongside pediatricians to test and monitor children with these disorders, and educate patients and parents on treatments and kinds of thesis methods, which may include lifestyle changes.

Pediatric endocrinology kinds of psychology typically work in hospitals and pediatricians' or physicians' offices. Perianesthesia nurses prep patients for surgery, but their main duty is to care for patients coming off of anesthesia or sedation following a surgical procedure. They help to orient the patient, check vitals including blood pressure and respiration rate, and make sure the patient isn't suffering from any side effects or adverse reactions from the anesthesia.

Perinatal nurses care for women before, during, and after pregnancy, and help both mother and baby for the first few weeks of the newborn's life. They educate patients and families on things like childbirth options, umbilical cord care, and more. Additionally, they screen and assess patients for high-risk pregnancies and perform a multitude of routine pregnancy tests. Call us at Home Need Personalized Help? Forensic Nursing - These nurses work with victims of violence and those who commit it.

You will work closely with the legal system in collecting forensic evidence in these cases. Gastroenterology Nursing - This nursing specialty works in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions that affect the entire digestive system. Genetics Nursing - You will treat many types of genetically inherited diseases, including cancer, heart disease and diabetes. Teach families how they can minimize their risks.

Geriatric Nursing - A type of nurse who works with the elderly, who often have a variety of serious acute and chronic illnesses. Gerontological Nurse Practitioner - A type of nurse practitioner who works under the supervision of a doctor, on elderly patients with acute and chronic illnesses.

You also will care for pregnant women and keep them in good health for delivery.

Association - psychology - Britannica

Health Policy Nursing - You will analyze public and health policy so you can help to shape new nursing policy that helps patients of all ages. Hematology Nursing - This is a nursing speciality that is related to oncology nursing, where you help cancer patients with treatments, pain management and blood transfusions. Help them to stay healthy, manage their treatments and manage pain.

Holistic Nursing - Holistic nursing focuses on treatment of the entire patient - both their mental and physical well being to optimize health. Home Health Care Nursing - Provide essential nursing care to people in their homes who are seriously ill with acute and chronic conditions. Help to manage pain and end life with dignity. Infection Control Nursing - Theses nurses help prevent patient infections in hospitals and clinics. Infection control nurses are usually the ones responsible for notifying the closest branch of the Centers for Disease Control.

Informatics Nursing - Your job would be to translate nursing practice information between nurses and systems engineers, analysts, or designers using object-oriented models or other techniques. Infusion Nursing - Infusion Nurses give patients medication and college cover letter admissions via injection. They monitor patients, manage their tubing, maintain arterial catheters, and stay aware of potential complications.

In-home care typically includes assistance with day-to-day tasks such as bathing, walking or cooking. Adult day care is an appropriate choice for those who are unable to stay at home alone, even for short periods. Adult day care offers supervised care within a safe and secure environment.

It may be community- or facility-based. Services typically include meals, social or recreational activities, and health-related assistance. When you think about nursing, do you automatically think of hospitals?

Nursing is an amazing field with so many great application statement opportunities and so many different types of jobs to choose from.

Not only are there hundreds of different types of nursing jobs, but the possible work locations are as varied as the jobs. This gives you some information about nurses who work in more traditional nurse settings, but what about those who work in non-traditional work settings? These nurses provide medical support and monitoring during the flights and can assist patients with transferring in and out of ground ambulances.

Occupational health nurses help to maintain safe working environments, and they may also treat workplace illnesses and injuries. An occupational nurse may find kinds of sociology in a factory or plant, in an office building setting, or in a corporate capacity.

For nurses who want to travel the world, a career as a cruise ship nurse may be the perfect job. These nurses provide first aid as well as acute care for illnesses.

They treat both the staff and the cruise ship passengers, and they may be required to work every day of each voyage. Cruise ship nurses typically hold a BSN degree.

Charge nurses perform kinds of nursing research typical role of a registered nurse with some additional administrative duties. Charge nurses may act in a supervisory capacity, and they may also be in charge of scheduling. A charge nurse is responsible for the overall level of care patients receive in his or her unit, and as a result, they may see fewer individual patients to help manage the unit.

Wound ostomy continence nurses provide specialized care for patients with wounds, healing incisions, and patients with ostomies. These nurses treat wounds, provide pain management options, and help patients learn how to care for their conditions at home. A nurse may show a patient how to change an ostomy bag or help families learn how to care for and provide support for family members.

An infusion therapy nurse administers intravenous medications, inserts IV lines as needed, and provides other support services for patients. This type of nurse might work in a hospital or clinic, and may also provide in-home services to disabled patients.

Transplant nurse coordinators provide essential support for patients in need of an organ transplant. They may assist with the evaluation of the need for a transplant, and they notify patients when an organ becomes available. This type of nurse may also have to help assess whether a patient in need is not a suitable any kinds of speech for a new organ, such as a person who is still struggling with addiction but is in need of a new liver. Psychiatric mental health nurses provide care for individuals with mental illness in medical practices, hospitals, and mental health facilities.

They may be responsible for planning and implementing care, and they may also provide assistance with diagnosing certain conditions. Family nurse practitioners serve in a primary medical caregiver role, and they often work in clinics or medical practices.

They can provide diagnostic care and provide treatment options, any kinds of speech the prescribing of medication. In underserved areas, a family nurse practitioner may provide primary care for a community, and they can work with patients throughout their lives, building a relationship with each patient.

Medical-surgical nurse practitioners fill essential roles in operating rooms. They can provide pre- and post-operative care for patients, assisting with preparation for anesthesia, and ensuring patients understand the procedures they are having performed.

This role goes beyond the med-surge nurse role, and they may operate laparoscopic equipment, suture wounds, and open sites for surgical procedures.

An infectious disease control nurse works to prevent the spread of diseases. Nurses will assist doctors in the emergency room or in trauma care when help is needed. Despite equal opportunity legislation, nursing has continued to be a female-dominated profession. Although females are more common, male nurses receive the same pay.

Nursing practice is the actual provision of nursing care. In providing care, nurses implement the nursing care plan using the nursing process.

List of psychological research methods

This is based around a specific nursing theory which is selected in consideration with the care setting and the population served. In providing nursing care, the nurse uses both nursing theory and best practice derived from nursing research. In general terms, the nursing process is the method used to assess and diagnose needs, plan outcomes and interventions, implement interventions, and evaluate the outcomes of the kinds of sociology provided.

Like other disciplines, the profession has developed different theories derived from sometimes diverse philosophical beliefs and paradigms or worldviews to help nurses direct their activities to accomplish specific goals.

Assisting in activities of daily living ADL are skills required in nursing as well as other professions such as nursing assistants. This includes assisting in patient mobility, such as moving an activity intolerant patient within bed.

For hygiene, this often involves bed baths and assisting with urinary and bowel elimination. Nurses do not have the authority to prescribe medications, although there are some exceptions. All medications administered by nurses must be from a medication prescription from a licensed practitioner, such as a physician. Nurses are legally responsible for the drugs they administer.

There may be legal implications when there is an error in a prescription, and the nurse could be expected to have noted and reported the error. In the United States, nurses have the right to refuse any medication administration that they deem to be potentially harmful to the patient. The patient's family is often involved in the education.

Effective patient education leads to fewer complications and hospital visits. Nursing is the most diverse of all health care professions. Nurses practice in a wide range of settings but generally nursing is divided depending on the needs of the person being nursed.

There are also specialist areas such as cardiac nursingorthopedic nursing kinds of sociology, palliative careperioperative nursingobstetrical nursingoncology nursingnursing informaticstelenursing and emergency nursing.

Nurses practice in a wide range of settings, including hospitals, private homesschoolsand pharmaceutical companies. Nurses work in occupational health settings [52] also called industrial health settingsfree-standing clinics and physician offices, nurse-led clinicslong-term care facilities and camps. They also work on cruise ships and in military service.

Nurses act as advisers and consultants to the health care and insurance industries. Many nurses also work in the health advocacy and patient advocacy fields at companies such as Health AdvocateInc. Nurses can work on a temporary basis, which involves doing shifts without a contract in a variety of settings, sometimes known as per diem nursingagency nursing or travel nursing.

Nurses work as researchers in laboratories, universities, and research institutions. Nurses have also been delving into the world of informatics, acting as consultants to the creation of computerized charting programs and other software.

Internationally, there is a serious shortage of nurses. In a recent review of the empirical human factors and ergonomic literature specific to nursing performance, nurses were found to work in generally poor environmental conditions. Some countries and states have passed legislation regarding acceptable nurse-to-patient ratios.

The fast-paced and unpredictable nature of health care places nurses at risk for injuries and illnesses, including high occupational stress. Nursing is a particularly stressful profession, and nurses consistently identify stress as a major work-related concern and have among the highest levels of occupational stress when compared to other professions. This stress is caused by the environment, psychosocial stressors, and the demands of nursing, including new technology that must be mastered, the emotional labor involved in nursing, physical labor, shift workand high workload.

This stress puts nurses at risk for short-term and long-term health problems, including sleep disordersdepressionmortalitypsychiatric disorders, stress-related illnesses, and illness in general. Nurses are at risk of developing compassion fatigue and moral distresswhich can worsen mental health. Burnout and exhaustion increase the risk for illness, medical error, and suboptimal kinds of nursing research provision. Nurses are also at risk for violence and abuse in the workplace.

There are a number of interventions that can mitigate the occupational hazards of nursing. They can be individual-focused or organization-focused. Individual-focused interventions include stress management programs, which can be customized to individuals. Stress management programs can reduce anxiety, sleep disorders, and other symptoms of stress.

Organizational interventions focus on reducing stressful aspects of the work environment by defining stressful characteristics and developing solutions to them. Using organizational and individual interventions together is most effective at reducing stress on nurses.

Catholic religious institutes were influential in the development of Australian nursing, founding many of Australia's hospitals - the Irish Sisters of Charity were first to arrive in and established St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney in as a free hospital for the any kinds of speech.

They and other orders like the Sisters of Mercyand in aged care the Sisters of the Little Company of Mary and Little Sisters of the Poor founded hospitals, hospices, research institutes and aged care facilities around Australia.

A census in the s found several hundred nurses working in Western Australia during the colonial period of history, this included Aboriginal female servants who cared for the infirm. Enrolled and registered nurses are identified by the department of immigration as an i need math homework help area of need, although registered nurses are always in shorter supply, and this increases in proportion with specialization.

In there were a number of rolling industrial actions around the country, culminating when five thousand Victorian nurses went on strike for eighteen days. The hospitals were able to function by hiring casual staff from each other's striking members, but the increased cost forced a decision in the nurses' favor [63].

In the European Union, the profession of nurse is regulated. A profession is said to be regulated when access and exercise is subject dissertation explicative conclusion the possession of a specific professional qualification.

Kinds of double taxation

To practice lawfully as a registered nurse in the United Kingdom, the practitioner must hold a current and valid registration with the Nursing and Midwifery Council. The title "Registered Nurse" can only be granted to those holding such registration.This is similar to the national lottery.

Random samples require a way of naming or numbering the target population and then using some type of raffle method to choose those to make up the sample. Random samples are the best method of selecting your sample from the population of interest.

The advantages are that your sample should represent the target population and eliminate sampling bias, but the disadvantage is that it is very difficult to achieve i. The researcher identifies the different types of people that make up the target population and works out the proportions needed for the sample to be representative. A list is made of each variable e. IQ, gender etc. For example, if we are interested in the money spent on books by undergraduates, then the main subject studied may be an important variable.

For example, students studying English Literature may spend more money on books than engineering students so if we use a very large percentage of English students or engineering students then our results will not be accurate. We have to work out the relative percentage of each group at a university e.

Gathering such a sample would be extremely time consuming and difficult to do disadvantage. This method is rarely used in Psychology. However, the advantage is that the sample should be highly representative of the target population and therefore we can generalize from the results obtained.

Uses people from target population available at the time and willing to take part. It is based on convenience.

An opportunity sample is obtained by asking members of the population of interest if they would take part in your research. An example would be selecting a sample of students from those coming out of the library. American psychology gained status during World War I, during which a standing committee headed by Robert Yerkes administered mental tests " Army Alpha " and " Army Beta " to almost 1.

University of Michigan psychologist Dorwin Cartwright reported that university researchers began large-scale propaganda research inand "the last few months of the war saw a social psychologist become chiefly responsible for determining the week-by-week-propaganda policy for the United States Government.

In Germany after World War I, psychology held institutional power through the military, and subsequently expanded along with the rest of the military under the Third Reich.

Freudian psychoanalysts were expelled and persecuted under the anti-Jewish policies of the Nazi Partyand all psychologists had to distance themselves from Freud and Adler.

This psychotherapy aimed to align suitable Germans with the overall goals of the Reich; as described by one physician: "Despite the importance of analysis, spiritual guidance and the active cooperation of the patient represent the best way to overcome individual any kinds of speech problems and to subordinate them to the requirements of the Volk and the Gemeinschaft.

Alexander Mitscherlich founded a prominent applied psychoanalysis journal called Psyche and with funding from the Rockefeller Foundation established the first clinical psychosomatic medicine division at Heidelberg University. Inpsychology was integrated into the required studies of medical students. After the Russian Revolutionpsychology was heavily promoted by the Bolsheviks as a way to engineer the "New Man" of socialism. Thus, university psychology departments trained large numbers of students, for whom positions were made available at schools, workplaces, cultural institutions, and in the military.

An especial focus was pedologythe study of child development, regarding which Lev Vygotsky became a prominent writer. Luriaand Aron Zalkind were denounced; Ivan Pavlov posthumously and Stalin himself were aggrandized as heroes of Soviet psychology.

There emerged a new field called " engineering psychology " which studied mental aspects of complex jobs such as pilot and cosmonaut. Interdisciplinary studies became popular and scholars such as Georgy Shchedrovitsky developed systems theory approaches to human behavior. Twentieth-century Chinese psychology originally modeled the U.

Chinese psychologists were encouraged to focus on education and language learning, with the aspiration that education would enable modernization and nationalization. John Dewey, who lectured to Chinese audiences inhad a significant influence on kinds of psychology doctrine.

Chinese psychologists elaborated on Lenin's model of a "reflective" consciousness, envisioning an "active consciousness" pinyin : tzu-chueh neng-tung-li able to transcend material conditions through hard work and ideological struggle. They developed a concept of "recognition" pinyin : jen-shih which referred the interface between individual perceptions and the socially accepted worldview failure to correspond with party doctrine was "incorrect recognition".

Most leading psychologists were educated in the United States, and the first concern of the Academy was re-education of these psychologists in the Soviet doctrines. Child psychology and pedagogy for nationally cohesive education remained a central goal of the discipline. Several associations including the Association of Black Psychologists and the Asian American Psychological Association have arisen to promote non-European racial groups in the profession.

The International Union recognizes 66 national psychology associations and at least 15 others exist. The Interamerican Society of Psychology, founded inaspires to promote psychology and coordinate psychologists across the Western Hemisphere.

It holds the Interamerican Congress of Psychology and had 1, members in year The European Federation of Professional Psychology Associations, founded inrepresents 30 national associations with a total ofindividual members. At least 30 other international groups organize psychologists in different regions. In some kinds of nursing research, governments legally regulate who can provide psychological services or represent themselves as a "psychologist".

Early practitioners of experimental psychology distinguished themselves from parapsychologywhich in the late nineteenth century enjoyed great popularity including the interest of scholars such as William James kinds of thesis, and indeed constituted the bulk of what people called "psychology". Parapsychology, hypnotism, and psychism were major topics of the early International Congresses. But students of these fields were eventually ostractized, and more or less banished from the Congress in As a discipline, psychology has long sought to fend off accusations that it is a "soft" science.

Philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn 's critique implied psychology overall was in a pre-paradigm state, lacking the agreement on overarching theory found in mature sciences such as chemistry and physics.

Skeptics have suggested that personality, thinking, and emotion, cannot be directly measured and are often inferred from subjective self-reports, which may be problematic. Experimental psychologists have devised a variety of ways to indirectly measure these elusive phenomenological entities.

Divisions still exist within the field, with some psychologists more oriented towards the unique experiences of individual humans, which cannot be understood only as data points within a larger population. Critics inside and outside the field have argued that mainstream psychology has become increasingly dominated by kinds of sociology "cult of empiricism" which limits the scope of its study by using only methods derived from the physical sciences. Jean Grimshaw, for example, argues that mainstream psychological research has advanced a patriarchal agenda through its efforts to control behavior.

Psychologists generally consider the organism the basis of the mind, and therefore a vitally related area of study. Psychiatrists and neuropsychologists work at the interface of mind and body. Key research topics in this field include comparative psychologywhich studies humans in relation to other animals, and perception which involves the physical mechanics of sensation as well as neural and mental processing. From Phineas Gage to H. Soon after, Carl Wernicke identified a related area necessary for the understanding of speech.

The contemporary field of behavioral neuroscience focuses on physical causes underpinning behavior. For example, physiological psychologists use animal models, typically rats, to study the neural, genetic, and cellular mechanisms that underlie specific behaviors such as learning and memory and fear responses. The biopsychosocial model is an integrated perspective toward understanding consciousness, behavior, and social interaction.

It assumes that any given behavior or mental process affects and is affected by dynamically interrelated biological, psychological, and social factors. Evolutionary psychology examines cognition and personality traits from an evolutionary perspective. This perspective suggests that psychological adaptations evolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestral environments. Evolutionary psychology offers complementary explanations for the mostly proximate or developmental explanations developed by other areas of psychology: that is, it focuses mostly on ultimate or "why?

The search for biological origins of psychological phenomena has long involved debates about the importance of race, and especially the kinds of thesis between race and intelligence. The idea of white supremacy and indeed the modern concept of race itself arose during the process kinds of sociology world conquest by Europeans. Race was also used to justify the construction of socially specific mental disorders such as drapetomania and dysaesthesia aethiopica -the behavior of uncooperative African slaves.

Psychologists take human behavior as a main area of study. Much of the research in essay mla title area began with tests on mammals, based on the idea that humans exhibit similar fundamental tendencies. Behavioral research ever aspires to improve the effectiveness of techniques for behavior modification. Early behavioral researchers studied stimulus-response pairings, now known as classical conditioning.

They demonstrated that behaviors could be linked through repeated association with stimuli eliciting pain or pleasure. Ivan Pavlov-known best for inducing dogs to salivate in the presence of a stimulus previously linked with food-became a leading figure in the Soviet Union and inspired followers to use his methods on humans. Thorndike wrote in "There can be no moral warrant for studying man's nature unless the study will enable us to control his acts.

Watson coined the term behaviorism for this school of thought. Embraced and extended by Clark L. HullEdwin Guthrieand others, behaviorism became a widely used research paradigm. Radical behaviorists avoided discussing the inner workings of the mind, especially the unconscious mind, which they considered impossible to assess scientifically.

Skinnerwho emerged as a leading intellectual of the behaviorist movement. Noam Chomsky delivered an influential critique of radical behaviorism on the grounds that it could not adequately explain the complex mental process of language acquisition.

Tolman advanced a hybrid "cognitive behaviorial" model, most notably with his publication discussing the cognitive maps used by rats to guess at the location of food at the end of a modified maze. The Association for Behavior Analysis International was founded in and by had members from 42 countries. The Stroop effect refers to the fact that naming the color of the first set of words is easier and quicker than the second.

Cognitive psychology studies cognition, the mental processes underlying mental activity. Perception, attention, reasoning, thinking, problem solving, memory, learning, language, and emotion are areas of research. Classical cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivismwhose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by functionalism and experimental psychology. Starting in the s, the experimental techniques developed by Wundt, James, Ebbinghaus, and others re-emerged as experimental psychology became increasingly cognitivist-concerned with information and its processing-and, eventually, constituted a part kinds of thesis the wider cognitive science.

Social learning theoristssuch as Albert Banduraargued that any kinds of speech child's environment could make contributions of its own to the behaviors of an observant subject. Technological advances also renewed interest in mental states and representations. Hebb used experimental methods to link psychological phenomena with the structure and function of the brain.

The rise of computer science, cybernetics and artificial intelligence suggested the value of comparatively studying information processing in humans and machines. Research in cognition had proven practical since World War II, when it aided in the understanding of weapons operation. A popular and representative topic in this area is cognitive biasor irrational thought.

Psychologists and economists have classified and described a sizeable catalogue of biases which recur frequently in human thought. The availability heuristicfor example, is the tendency to overestimate the importance of something which happens to come readily to mind.

Elements of behaviorism and cognitive psychology were synthesized to form cognitive behavioral therapya form of psychotherapy modified from techniques developed by American psychologist Albert Ellis and American psychiatrist Aaron T.

On a broader level, cognitive science is an interdisciplinary enterprise of cognitive psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, researchers in artificial intelligence, linguists, human-computer interaction, computational neuroscience, logicians and social scientists. The discipline of cognitive science covers cognitive psychology as well as philosophy of mind, computer science, and neuroscience. Social psychology is the study of how kinds of thesis think about each other and how they relate to each other.

Social psychologists study such topics as the influence of others on an individual's behavior e. Social walter benjamin the age of mechanical reproduction essay fuses elements of social and cognitive psychology in order to understand how people process, remember, or distort social information.

The study of group dynamics reveals information about the nature and potential optimization of leadership, communication, and other phenomena that emerge at least at the microsocial level. In recent years, many social psychologists have become increasingly interested in implicit measures, mediational models, and the interaction of both person and social variables in accounting for behavior.

The study of human society is therefore a potentially valuable source of information about the causes of psychiatric disorder.

Some sociological concepts applied to psychiatric disorders are the social role, sick role, social class, life event, culture, migration, social, and total institution. Psychoanalysis comprises a method of investigating the mind and interpreting experience; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially conflict originating in the unconscious mind.

Freud's psychoanalytic theory was largely based on interpretive methods, introspection and clinical observations. It became very well known, largely because it tackled subjects such as sexualityrepressionand the unconscious. These subjects were largely taboo at the time, and Freud provided a catalyst for their open discussion in polite society.

Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, influenced by Freud, elaborated a theory of the collective unconscious -a primordial force present in all humans, featuring archetypes which exerted a profound influence on the mind. Jung's competing vision formed the basis for analytical psychologywhich later led to the archetypal and process-oriented schools.

Other well-known psychoanalytic scholars of the midth century include Erik EriksonMelanie KleinD. Throughout the 20th century, psychoanalysis evolved into diverse schools of thought which could be called Neo-Freudian. Among these schools are ego psychologyobject relationsand interpersonalLacanianand relational psychoanalysis. Psychologists such as Hans Eysenck and philosophers including Karl Popper criticized psychoanalysis.

Popper argued that psychoanalysis had been misrepresented as a scientific discipline, [98] whereas Eysenck said that psychoanalytic tenets had been contradicted by experimental data. By the end of 20th century, psychology departments in American universities mostly marginalized Freudian theory, dismissing it as a "desiccated and dead" personal essay introduction artifact.

Humanistic psychology developed in the s as a movement within academic psychology, in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. It emphasized subjective meaning, rejection of determinism, and concern for positive growth rather than pathology. Later, positive psychology opened up humanistic themes to scientific modes of exploration. Humanistic psychology is primarily an orientation toward the whole of psychology rather than a distinct area or school.

It stands for respect for the worth of persons, respect for differences of approach, open-mindedness as to acceptable methods, and interest in exploration of new aspects of human behavior. As a "third force" in contemporary psychology, it is concerned with topics having little place in existing theories and systems: e.

Swiss psychoanalyst Ludwig Binswanger and American psychologist George Kelly may also be said to belong to the existential school. Austrian existential psychiatrist and Holocaust survivor Viktor Frankl drew evidence of meaning's therapeutic power from reflections garnered from his own internment.

Personality psychology is concerned with enduring patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion-commonly referred to as personality-in individuals. Theories of personality essay definition and examples across different psychological schools and orientations. They carry different assumptions about such issues as the role of the unconscious and the importance of childhood experience.

According to Freud, personality is based kinds of psychology the dynamic interactions of the id, ego, and super-ego. Although the number of proposed traits has varied widely, an early biologically-based model proposed by Hans Eysenck, the 3rd mostly highly cited psychologist of the 20th Century after Freud, and Piaget respectivelysuggested that at least three major trait constructs are necessary to describe human personality structure: extraversion-introversionneuroticism -stability, and psychoticism -normality.

Raymond Cattellthe 7th most highly cited psychologist of the 20th Century based on the scientific peer-reviewed journal literature [] empirically derived a theory of 16 personality factors at the primary-factor level, and up to 8 broader second-stratum factors at the Eysenckian level of analysisrather than the "Big Five" dimensions. However, despite a plethora of research into the various versions of the "Big Five" personality dimensions, it appears necessary to move on from static conceptualizations of personality structure to a more dynamic orientation, whereby it is acknowledged that personality constructs are subject to learning and change across the lifespan.

The popular, although psychometrically inadequate Myers-Briggs Type Indicator [] sought to assess individuals' "personality types" according to the personality theories of Carl Jung. Behaviorist resistance to introspection led to the development of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPIin an attempt to ask empirical questions that focused less on the psychodynamics of the respondent. Study of the unconscious mind, a part of the psyche outside the awareness of the individual which nevertheless influenced thoughts and behavior was a hallmark of early psychology.

In one of the first psychology experiments conducted in the United States, C. Peirce and Joseph Jastrow found in that subjects could choose the minutely heavier of two weights even if consciously uncertain of the difference.

His text The Psychopathology of Everyday Life catalogues hundreds of everyday events which Freud explains in terms of unconscious influence. Pierre Janet advanced the idea of a subconscious mind, which could contain autonomous mental elements unavailable to the scrutiny of the subject. Behaviorism notwithstanding, the unconscious mind has maintained its importance in psychology. Cognitive psychologists have used a "filter" model of attention, according to which much information processing takes place below the threshold of consciousness, and only certain processes, limited by nature and by simultaneous quantity, make their way through the filter.

Copious research has shown that subconscious priming of certain ideas can covertly influence thoughts and behavior.

For this reason, some psychologists prefer to distinguish between implicit and explicit memory. In another approach, one can also describe a subliminal stimulus as meeting an objective but not a subjective kinds of psychology. The automaticity model, which became widespread following exposition by John Bargh and others in the s, describes sophisticated processes for executing goals which can be selected and performed over an extended duration without conscious awareness.

John Bargh, Daniel Wegnerand Ellen Langer are some prominent contemporary psychologists who describe free will as an illusion. Psychologists such as William James initially used the term motivation to refer to intention, in a sense similar to the concept of will in European philosophy.

With the steady rise of Darwinian and Freudian thinking, instinct also came to be seen as a primary source of motivation. Psychoanalysis, like biology, regarded these forces as physical demands made by the organism on the nervous system. However, they believed that these forces, especially the sexual instincts, could become entangled and transmuted within the psyche. Classical psychoanalysis conceives of a struggle between the pleasure principle and the reality principleroughly corresponding to id and ego.

Later, in Beyond the Pleasure PrincipleFreud introduced the concept of the death drivea compulsion towards aggression, destruction, and psychic repetition of traumatic events. Hunger, thirst, fear, sexual desire, and thermoregulation all seem to constitute fundamental motivations for animals. Motivation can be modulated or manipulated in many different ways.

Researchers have found that eatingfor example, depends not only on the organism's fundamental need for homeostasis -an important factor causing the experience of hunger-but also on circadian rhythms, food doc engineer job mount resume surface technology, food palatability, and cost.

They suggest that this principle can even apply to food, drink, sex, and sleep. Mainly focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. This may focus on cognitive, affective, moral, social, or neural development.

Researchers who study children use a number of unique research methods to make observations in natural settings or to engage them in experimental tasks. Such tasks often resemble specially designed games and activities that are both enjoyable for the child and scientifically useful, and researchers have even devised clever methods to study the mental processes of infants.

Kinds of sociology

In addition to studying children, developmental psychologists also study aging and processes throughout the life span, especially at other times of rapid change such as adolescence and old age. Developmental psychologists draw on the full range of psychological theories to inform their research. All researched psychological traits are influenced by both genes and environment, to varying degrees. An kinds of nursing research is the transmission of depression from a depressed mother to her offspring.

Theory may hold that the offspring, by virtue of having a depressed mother in his or her the offspring's environment, is at risk for developing depression. However, risk for depression is also influenced to some extent by genes. The mother may both carry genes that contribute to her depression but will also have passed those genes on to her offspring thus increasing the offspring's risk for depression. Genes and environment in this simple transmission model are completely confounded.

Experimental and quasi-experimental behavioral genetic research uses genetic methodologies to disentangle this confound and understand the nature and origins of individual differences in behavior. More recently, the availability of microarray molecular genetic or genome sequencing technologies allows researchers to measure participant DNA variation directly, and test whether individual genetic variants within genes are associated with psychological traits and psychopathology through methods including genome-wide association studies.

One goal of such research is similar to that in positional cloning and its success in Huntington's : once a causal gene is discovered biological research can be conducted to understand how that gene influences the phenotype. One major result of genetic association studies is the general finding that psychological traits and psychopathology, as well as complex medical diseases, are highly polygenic[] [] [] [] [] where a large number on the order of hundreds to thousands of genetic variants, each of small effect, contribute to individual differences in the behavioral trait or propensity to the disorder.

Active research continues to understand the genetic and environmental bases of behavior and their interaction. Psychology encompasses many subfields and includes different approaches to the study of mental processes and behavior:. Psychological testing has ancient origins, such as examinations for the Chinese civil service dating back to BC. Bythe Chinese system required a stratified series of tests, involving essay writing and knowledge of diverse topics.

The system was ended in Physiognomy remained current through the Enlightenment, and added the doctrine any kinds of speech phrenology: a study of mind and intelligence based on simple assessment of neuroanatomy. When experimental psychology came to Britain, Francis Galton was a leading practitioner, and, with his procedures for measuring reaction time and sensation, is considered an inventor of modern mental testing also known as psychometrics. Binet and Simon introduced the concept of mental age and referred to the lowest scorers on their test as idiots.

Henry H. Goddard put the Binet-Simon scale to work and introduced classifications of mental level such as imbecile and feebleminded. In after Binet's deathStanford professor Lewis M. Terman modified the Binet-Simon scale renamed the Stanford-Binet scale and introduced the intelligence quotient as a score report. Their dullness seems to be racial. The federally created National Intelligence Test was administered to 7 million children in the s, and in the College Entrance Examination Board created the Scholastic Aptitude Test to standardize college admissions.

Setting a precedent which has never been overturned, the U. Supreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of this practice in the case Buck v. Today mental testing is a routine phenomenon for people of all ages in Western societies.

The provision of psychological health services is generally called clinical psychology in the U. The definitions of this term are various and may include school psychology and counseling psychology.

Practitioners typically includes people who have graduated from doctoral programs in clinical psychology but may also include others. In Canada, the above groups usually fall within the larger category of professional psychology. In Canada and the US, practitioners get bachelor's degrees and doctorates, then spend one year in an internship and one year in postdoctoral education. In Mexico and most other Latin American and European countries, psychologists do not get bachelor's and doctorate degrees; instead, they take a three-year professional course following high school.

Central to its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy although clinical psychologists may also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration.

Credit for the first psychology clinic in the United States typically goes to Lightner Witmer, who established his practice in Philadelphia in Another modern psychotherapist was Morton Prince. Psychology entered the field with its refinements of mental testing, which promised to improve diagnosis of mental problems. For their part, some psychiatrists became interested in using psychoanalysis and other forms of psychodynamic psychotherapy to understand and treat the mentally ill.

The therapist seeks to uncover repressed material and to understand why the patient creates defenses against certain thoughts and feelings. An important aspect of the therapeutic relationship is transferencein which deep unconscious feelings in a patient reorient themselves and become manifest in relation to the uni essay help. Psychiatric psychotherapy blurred the distinction between psychiatry and psychology, and this trend continued with the rise of community mental health facilities and behavioral therapya thoroughly non-psychodynamic model which used behaviorist learning theory to change the actions of patients.

A key aspect of behavior therapy is empirical evaluation of the treatment's effectiveness. In the s, cognitive-behavior therapy arose, using similar methods and now including the cognitive constructs which had gained popularity in theoretical psychology. A key practice in behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy is exposing patients to things they fear, based on the premise that their responses fear, panic, anxiety can be deconditioned.

Mental health care today involves psychologists and social workers in increasing numbers. InNational Institute of Mental Health director Bertram Brown described this shift as a source of "intense competition and role confusion". This degree is intended kinds of thesis train practitioners who might conduct scientific research. Some clinical psychologists may focus on the clinical management of patients with brain injury-this area is known as clinical neuropsychology.

In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession. The emerging field of disaster psychology see crisis intervention involves professionals who respond to large-scale traumatic events.

The work performed by clinical psychologists tends to be influenced by various therapeutic approaches, all of which involve a formal relationship between professional and client usually an individual, couple, family, or small group. Typically, these approaches encourage new ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving. Four major theoretical perspectives are psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, existential-humanistic, kinds of psychology systems or family therapy.

There has been a growing movement to integrate the various therapeutic approaches, especially with an increased understanding of issues regarding culture, gender, spirituality, and sexual orientation.

With the advent of more robust research findings regarding psychotherapy, there is evidence that most of the major therapies have equal effectiveness, with the key common element being a strong therapeutic alliance. New editions over time have increased in size and focused more on medical language.

Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, any kinds of speech effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations.

The work of child psychologists such as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piagetand Jerome Bruner has been influential in creating teaching methods and educational practices.

Educational psychology is often included in teacher education programs in places such as North America, Australia, and New Zealand. School psychology combines principles from educational psychology and clinical psychology to understand and treat students with learning disabilities; to foster the intellectual growth of gifted students; to facilitate prosocial behaviors in adolescents; and otherwise to promote safe, supportive, and effective learning environments. School psychologists are trained in educational and behavioral assessment, intervention, prevention, and consultation, and many have extensive training in research.

Industrialists soon brought the nascent field of psychology to bear on the study of scientific management techniques for improving workplace efficiency. This field was at first called economic psychology or business psychology ; later, industrial psychologyemployment psychologyor psychotechnology.

With funding from the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Fund and guidance from Australian psychologist Elton MayoWestern Electric experimented on thousands of factory workers to assess their responses to illumination, breaks, food, and wages. The researchers came to focus on workers' responses to observation itself, and the term Hawthorne effect is now used to describe the fact that people work harder when they think they're being watched.

Your introduction should note how research on your topic has progressed in recent years, similarities and incongruities between authors, and gaps in current research which your study should attempt to help fill in. Your introduction should also reference specific variables, populations, and methods addressed in your study. Your hypothesis should come at the end of the introduction and make clear what college research paper service groups will be and what will be measured.

The methods section explains how you conducted the experiment, who it was conducted upon, and with what materials. All of these explanations should be straightforward and concise without mentioning the results of your study. Participant description should include the subject's binomial nomenclature if non-human subjects were used, and any specific recruitment criteria or special arrangements like compensation if participants are human.

The testing procedure and materials used should be explained in such a way that a reader could replicate your study. All statistical measures used to interpret your data should be specified. The results section gives the specific data resulting from your study. Your statistics should, of course, be relevant to the type of data you are evaluating for instance, if you are only comparing two means you should be using a student t-test, not an ANOVA.

If you use tables or figures in your data section, you must cite them accordingly, and they should be organized by relevant variables. Any inferential statistics should be appropriate for your hypothesis, and should be stated directly and concisely. This section provides discussion of your data and a restatement of your findings. Kinds of nursing should look at patterns in the data and relationships among the variables you researched and discuss any conclusions which may arise from your data, but make sure you do not make any conclusions unsupported by your data.

Remember that you cannot "prove" your hypothesis was correct, because there might always be some underlying cause to your results other than the variable you tested.

Discuss how your conclusions relate to the research you examined in your introduction, and what steps could be taken to improve your study if there were any confounding variables, and what may have contributed to any discrepancies between your expected results and the actual results. Consider to what extent your results are conclusive and can be generalized to the entire population, and clearly state the "take-home" message of your study's findings at the end. Include all cited articles in any kinds of speech APA format; your sources should all be scholarly and preferably peer-reviewed since works like review articles or textbooks are not peer-reviewed, they are not subject to the same scholastic scrutiny as research articles.

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Ser una asociación integrada al mercado global, dinámica y propositiva, en donde cada uno de sus asociados participe activamente y se favorezca por la contribución de ésta a los resultados del mercado, su protagonismo y representatividad en los sectores financiero y público y en el crecimiento de la industria aseguradora.


La Asociación Guatemalteca de Instituciones de Seguros -–AGIS- es la entidad que agrupa voluntariamente a las aseguradoras del país, que contribuye al desarrollo y crecimiento de la industria del seguro y persigue el interés común de sus asociados basados en los principios de libre empresa y la técnica universal del seguro.


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Agrupar a las Aseguradoras privadas del país, promoviendo el desarrollo y perfeccionamiento de la industria del seguro, mediante la difusión de las ventajas de esta actividad representa para el país, creando y patrocinando órganos divulgativos y Comités de trabajo.

Crear, fomentar y estrechar las relaciones entre las diversas entidades que integran la Asociación y de ésta con las demás asociaciones privadas e internacionales de seguros.

Investigar nuevas modalidades del seguro en general, para abrir campos amplios a su desarrollo en nuestro país.

Recopilar datos relativos al funcionamiento de los diferentes ramos del seguro con el fin de llegar a formar una estadística de experiencia guatemalteca y de Centroamérica.


Breve Historia

La AGIS fue fundada en 1953. Es una Asociación no lucrativa, que agrupa a 15 Compañías Aseguradoras autorizadas y supervisadas por la Superintendencia de Bancos de Guatemala. Dentro de sus objetivos primordiales está la promoción del Seguro y la divulgación de sus beneficios. Prioriza con importancia la profesionalización del gremio asegurador, por lo que AGIS vela por el constante crecimiento de un sector sólido y ordenado que aporte a la economía del país, apegados a las más altas normas de eficiencia, sentido de responsabilidad y ética. AGIS fomenta y estrecha las relaciones entre sus asociados, así como con las entidades gubernamentales, sectores comerciales y asociaciones que suman a la economía de Guatemala.


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